Hard-Core BMW M4 GTS to Get Water-Injection System

BMW’s M4 MotoGP safety car has water injection, a far-from-new power-boosting technique


Despite Dorna’s hopes that BMW would field a MotoGP team after withdrawing from World Superbike, the Bavarian company has cannily continued to gain less costly worldwide exposure by supplying MotoGP’s safety car. It leads the field during the sighting lap, then follows the field after the start to guarantee prompt attention to any fallers on the tricky cold-tire opening lap, when riders are especially close to each other.

BMW has announced that the M4 used for this duty will now be equipped with a water-injection system that can allow more sustained yet safe (detonation-free) operation at high boost. The M4’s 3.0-liter inline-6 has twin turbochargers supplying a maximum of 18 psi of boost, which is good for a claimed 430 horsepower. Compressing air this much raises its temperature enough to make detonation more likely, so before being sent to the engine’s intakes, charge air is cooled by passing it through an air-to-engine-coolant heat exchanger (folks like to call this an “intercooler,” which annoys engineers, who prefer “charge air cooler”)..


Even so, prolonged use of high boost (chasing the MotoGP bikes on lap one calls for very high speed) pushes up engine temperature, allowing engine intake air temperature to rise. To prevent this rise in the safety car’s engine, BMW injects water through three nozzles into the intake air plenum. Heat in the air causes the water to evaporate, bringing intake temperature down to a safe level—and maybe also allowing more boost to be used. Car and Driver’s website attributes “production intent” to the system.
Hmm, the R-4360 aircraft piston engines I had in my shop until recently were the -20WA variant, equipped with water injection pumps. Normally, those big engines were enriched 20 percent during take-off, the evaporation of the added extra fuel acting to keep high-boost air temperature down to safe levels. But water, whose evaporation sucks up a lot more heat than can gasoline, did an even better job, pulling intake temp down enough to allow safe use of increased supercharger boost. When such systems were used on fighter aircraft to boost combat power, the water was mixed 50/50 with methyl alcohol to prevent freezing. Either way, evaporative intake cooling could allow more boost to be used without provoking the detonation (engine knock) that would otherwise occur.

In the case of the BMW M4 safety car, 1.3 gallons of water are carried in a trunk-mounted tank.
Water injection has been applied to auto engines before now, but today’s control electronics allow it to be used only when evaporation will be complete, preventing any liquid water from possibly being spattered onto cylinder walls whence it could be swept by the piston rings into the crankcase and oil.

BMW M4 safety car
BMW M4 safety car
BMW M4 safety car
BMW M4 safety car
Engine performance cutaway illustration.
Engine.


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Our HHO Gas Product's Advantages

1. Reduces your fuel spending by 10-40%. This is valid for both highway and town (city) driving conditions.

2. Increases the power and performance of your car. The more fuel you burn, the more the engine gets rattled up and wrecked. Switching to supplemental hydrogen HHO gas will enhance the power and performance of your car.

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Inside the engine there are pistons moving rapidly up and down at a constant rate, generating power for the car. When a piston lowers, it creates a vacuum which sucks in fuel and air (intake); when it rises, it compresses the fuel (compression), and the spark plug ignites it (power).

An engine will ideally only fire the piston when it has completely reached the top of the combustion chamber. However, most engines fire earlier and don't burn the fuel completely. This creates inefficiency, increases consumption, and creates pollution.

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WHAT IS HHO Oxy-Hydrogen?

HHO stands for 2-parts Hydrogen & 1-part Oxygen. When 2 Hydrogen atoms are bound to 1 Oxygen atom, you have water, but when you separate the atoms from each other, you have Hydrogen & Oxygen mixed gas. The correct term for this gas is Oxyhydrogen.

There are many names for this gas mix, such as browns gas, green gas, Hydroxy, Di-Hydroxy and water gas. The wonderful thing about this gas is the byproduct, which is water. There is no smog or fumes that are plaguing our planet today.

HHO (Oxyhydrogen) will combust when brought to its autoignition temperature. For a stoichimetric mixture at normal atmospheric pressure, autoignition occurs at about 570 °C (1065 °F). The minimum energy required to ignite such a mixture with a spark is about 20 microjoules. At standard temperature and pressure, Oxyhydrogen can burn when it is between about 4% and 95% hydrogen by volume. When ignited, the gas mixture releases energy and converts to water vapor, which sustains the reaction: 241.8 kJ of energy (LHV) for every mole of H2 burned. The amount of heat energy released is independent of the mode of combustion, but the temperature of the flame varies. The maximum temperature of about 2800 °C is achieved with a pure stoichimetric mixture, about 700 degrees hotter than a hydrogen flame in air. When either of the gases is mixed in excess of this ratio, or when mixed with an inert gas like nitrogen, the heat must spread throughout a greater quantity of matter and the temperature will be lower. (Source: Wikipedia) Okay, so now you know what HHO is, but how is it made? By a simple method called electrolysis, a method first recorded in 1800 by William Nicholson and Johann Ritter. Electrolysis involves the passage of an electric current (DC) thru electrodes. As we know, batteries have a positive and a negative.

A pure stoichimetric mixture may be obtained by water electrolysis, which uses an electric current to dissociate the water molecules:

Electrolysis: 2 H2O → 2 H2 + O2 Combustion: 2 H2 + O2 → 2 H2O (Source: Wikipedia)

With electrolysis, you have 2 types of electrodes called cathodes and anodes. The cathodes are positively charged; the anodes are negatively charged. The electrolysis process causes oxidation (rust), which can wreak havoc in an HHO generator with corrosive materials.

Water, by itself, is not a good conductor of electricity, so an electrolyte is commonly added to the water to allow electric current to pass through the water, breaking it down into HHO. There are many types of electrolytes, and each has pros and cons. Most manufactured HHO generators are designed for a particular electrolyte. We discussed what HHO is and how it's made, but how does it help?

"Modern gasoline engines have an average efficiency of about 25 to 10-40% when used to power an automobile. In other words, of the total heat energy of gasoline, 70 to 75% is rejected (as heat) in the exhaust or consumed by the motor (friction, air turbulence, heat through the cylinder walls or cylinder head, and work used to turn engine equipment and appliances such as water and oil pumps and electrical generator), and only about 25% of energy moves the vehicle." Source: Wikipedia

Adding the HHO gas to the air intake increases efficiency. It creates an atmosphere that allows the gasoline to burn more cleanly and efficiently, and the engine requires less fuel whilst operating more smoothly and producing less carbon monoxide and dioxide.

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